Dive Deeper: Vitamin C

Vitamin C, scientifically known as ascorbic acid, is an essential nutrient with many important functions for overall health and well-being. This vital vitamin, known for its versatility, participates in numerous biochemical processes within the body.

Let’s dive deeper!

Assessing vitamin C levels can provide valuable information about the presence and significance of vitamin C in our system. It plays a vital role in numerous bodily functions, including:

Antioxidant activity

Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, combating harmful free radicals and protecting cells from oxidative damage. This antioxidant role contributes to overall cellular health and helps reduce the risk of chronic diseases.

Collagen synthesis

Vitamin C is crucial for synthesizing collagen, a structural protein that provides strength and elasticity to our skin, bones, tendons, and blood vessels. It plays a vital role in wound healing, tissue repair, and maintaining the integrity of connective tissues.

Immune system support

Vitamin C supports the immune system by stimulating the production and function of various immune cells. It strengthens the body’s defense against pathogens and helps reduce the duration and severity of infections.

Iron absorption

This essential vitamin enhances the absorption of non-heme iron from plant-based sources, facilitating its uptake and utilization by the body. Adequate vitamin C levels aid in preventing iron deficiency anemia.

Antiviral activity

Vitamin C exhibits antiviral properties and has been shown to enhance the body’s ability to fight certain viral infections, including the common cold and respiratory tract infections.

Wound healing

Vitamin C’s involvement in collagen synthesis and its antioxidant properties make it essential for efficient wound healing. It promotes tissue regeneration, enhances scar formation, and aids in the repair of damaged skin.

Skin health

As a powerful antioxidant, vitamin C helps protect the skin against oxidative stress and damage caused by environmental factors such as UV radiation and pollution. It promotes skin hydration, elasticity, and a more youthful appearance.

Eye health

Vitamin C contributes to maintaining the eyes’ health by protecting against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and reducing the risk of cataracts.

Factors that can influence vitamin C levels

  • Dietary intake: The amount of vitamin C consumed through the diet plays a significant role in determining vitamin C levels in the body. A diet rich in vitamin C-containing foods, such as citrus fruits, berries, kiwi, broccoli, bell peppers, and leafy greens, can contribute to higher vitamin C levels.
  • Health conditions: Certain health conditions, such as malabsorption disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and chronic kidney disease, can affect the absorption, utilization, and excretion of vitamin C.
  • Medications: Some medications, such as certain antibiotics, oral contraceptives, and aspirin in high doses, can interfere with vitamin C metabolism and affect its levels in the body.
  • Smoking and alcohol consumption: Smoking and excessive alcohol consumption have been found to deplete vitamin C levels in the body.

Optimal Result

Test Result: Optimal

Vitamin C Value Range: 0.6 – 2.8 mmol/L

Wellness Score: 10/10

Wellness Label: Optimal

What this means for health

An optimal urinary vitamin C level within the range of 0.6 – 2.8 mmol/L typically indicates a sufficient intake of this essential antioxidant vitamin, which can contribute to better overall health, immune function, and protection against oxidative stress. Maintaining optimal vitamin C levels reduces the risk of various health issues and supports the body’s ability to combat illness and maintain well-being.

Signs and symptoms

Optimal vitamin C levels in urine do not typically produce specific signs or symptoms that are directly noticeable. However, maintaining these levels is associated with overall health benefits, including enhanced immune function, reduced risk of scurvy, better wound healing, and protection against oxidative stress, which can contribute to general well-being.

Factors that could interfere

Factors that can interfere with optimal vitamin C levels in urine include variations in dietary vitamin C intake, certain medications, and underlying health conditions that affect vitamin C absorption or metabolism.

Moderate Result

Test Result: High

Vitamin C Value: 5 mmol/L

Wellness Score: 7/10

Wellness Label: Moderate

What this means for health

A high urinary vitamin C level of 5 mmol/L typically indicates an elevated intake of this essential antioxidant vitamin, which can positively indicate overall health. While excess vitamin C is generally excreted in the urine, it’s essential to ensure that such high levels are not the result of excessive supplementation and that vitamin C intake remains within recommended daily limits to maintain a balanced and healthy diet.

Signs and symptoms

High vitamin C levels in urine do not typically produce specific signs or symptoms that are directly noticeable. However, it’s important to note that extremely high levels may result from excessive vitamin C supplementation, which can lead to potential adverse effects such as gastrointestinal discomfort or kidney stone formation and should be monitored to maintain overall health.

Factors that could interfere

Factors that can interfere with high vitamin C in urine include excessive vitamin C supplementation, dietary choices, and certain medications. Extremely high vitamin C levels in urine may result from overconsumption and should be carefully managed to avoid potential adverse effects on overall health.

Low Result

Test Result: Low

Vitamin C Value: 0 mmol/L

Wellness Score: 4/10

Wellness Label: Low

What this means for health

A urinary vitamin C level of 0 mmol/L indicates an absence or extremely low concentration of vitamin C in the urine. Such low levels can be associated with a deficiency of this essential antioxidant vitamin, which may increase the risk of scurvy and weaken the body’s ability to combat oxidative stress, emphasizing the need for dietary adjustments to improve overall health.

Signs and symptoms

Low or undetectable vitamin C levels in urine may indicate a severe vitamin C deficiency. Symptoms of vitamin C deficiency can include fatigue, weakness, joint pain, easy bruising, slow wound healing, and, in more advanced cases, the development of scurvy, a condition characterized by bleeding gums, skin issues, and a weakened immune system, which can significantly impact overall health.

Factors that could interfere

Factors that can interfere with the presence of low vitamin C in urine include variations in dietary vitamin C intake and supplementation, as well as underlying health conditions or medications that affect vitamin C absorption or metabolism. Inaccurately low vitamin C levels in urine could also result from improper sample collection or handling, and these factors should be considered when interpreting the results in a clinical context.

Overall Tips

  • Consume vitamin C-rich foods: Incorporate a variety of fruits and vegetables into your diet, as they are excellent natural sources of vitamin C. Citrus fruits, berries, kiwi, broccoli, bell peppers, and leafy greens are exceptionally high in vitamin C.
  • Avoid overcooking: Vitamin C is sensitive to heat and can be easily destroyed during cooking. Minimize cooking time and avoid high temperatures to preserve the vitamin C content in your food (Go for steaming and light stir-frying cooking methods).
  • Avoid smoking and reduce alcohol intake: Smoking increases the body’s demand for vitamin C and can deplete its levels. If you smoke, quitting or reducing tobacco use can help maintain optimal vitamin C status. Excessive alcohol intake can also impair vitamin C absorption and utilization, so moderation is key.


  1. Carr, A. C., & Maggini, S. (2017). Vitamin C and immune function. Nutrients, 9(11), 1211. doi: 10.3390/nu9111211
  2. Levine, M., Conry-Cantilena, C., Wang, Y., Welch, R. W., Washko, P. W., Dhariwal, K. R., … & Cantilena, L. R. (1996). Vitamin C pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers: Evidence for a recommended dietary allowance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(8), 3704-3709. doi: 10.1073/pnas.93.8.3704
  3. Lykkesfeldt, J., & Poulsen, H. E. (2010). Is vitamin C supplementation beneficial? Lessons learned from randomized controlled trials. British Journal of Nutrition, 103(9), 1251-1259. doi: 10.1017/S0007114509993329
  4. Padayatty, S. J., Levine, M., & Wang, Y. (2003). Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: Implications for oral and intravenous use. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140(7), 533-537. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-140-7-200404060-00010
  5. Pullar, J. M., Carr, A. C., & Vissers, M. C. (2017). The roles of vitamin C in skin health. Nutrients, 9(8), 866. doi: 10.3390/nu9080866


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